Dr Carl Bradley


Carl is a lecturer in the discipline of Criminology and Justice and is based at the Melbourne campus. Joining ACAP in 2018, Carl teaches criminal justice and crime prevention. Coming from New Zealand Carl has worked for Massey University since 2004 in both a full-time and part-time capacity for the Centre for Defence and Security Studies, History and Te Au Rangahau (School of Management). Teaching has included early New Zealand history, military history and command, leadership and management.

In 2004, Carl attained a Master’s degree in Defence and Strategic Studies from Massey University and completed his PhD at the University of Newcastle (NSW) in 2014. This Doctoral thesis research was comparative in its theoretical approach and demonstrated originality as it drew on the knowledge of traditional Māori society to test how this knowledge can enable a deeper understanding of other traditional societies encountering military imperialism, in this instance Gallic society during the Roman invasion of Gaul.


Carl’s current research is in patched biker gangs and patched street gangs in Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand. The main focus is on the cultural nature of gangs and their impact and influence over their host communities, their role in shadow economics, and the nexus between gang connections between Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand. Carl also researched indigenous response to colonisation with particular focus on armed response and ideas around warrior societies.

Expert Comment Topics

  • Patched gangs
  • Indigenous response to colonisation
  • Iron Age warfare and society

Published Journal Articles

  • Carl Bradley, “Outlaw Bikers, methamphetamine and cultural change”,International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Science Studies ISSN: 2397-6934 (Online) ; ISBN: 978-1-911185-81-9-2018
  • Carl Bradley, “The British War Chariot: A Case for Indirect Warfare”, The Journal of Military History, 73: 4, October 2009, pp. 1073-1089
  • Awarded University of Newcastle Postgraduate Research Publication Prize, 2010

Book Chapters

  • Carl Bradley “Syncretic Religion and War leadership: Tītokowaru, Peace and Violence in Southern Taranaki”. (Wellington, Steele Roberts Aotearoa Publishers: 2018).
  • Carl Bradley, “Outlaw Motorcycle Club, Organised Crime and National Security” in New Zealand National Security: Challenges, Trends and Issues. (Palmerston North, Massey University Press: 2017).
  • Co-Editor, New Zealand National Security: Challenges, Trends and Issues. (Palmerston North, Massey University Press: 2017).
  • Carl Bradley and Rhys Ball, “ANZAC: A Nation’s Creation Story” in Turangawaewae: Identity and Belonging in Aotearoa New Zealand. (Palmerston North, Massey University Press: 2017).

Book Reviews

  • Review, Douglas S. Farrer (ed.) War Magic: Religion, Sorcery, and Performance.
  • In sites: new series vol 14 no 1, 2017.
  • Review, Vincent O’Malley, The Meeting Place: Māori and Pākehā Encounters, 1642-1840. In Te Pouhere Korero 6, 2012.
  • Review, James Belich, I Shall Not Die: Titokowaru’s War 1868-1869, In Te Pouhere Korero 6, 2012.
  • Review, Danny Keenan, Wars Without End: The Land Wars in Nineteenth Century New Zealand. In Te Pouhere Korero 4. Wellington. 2010.

Research Grants

  • Massey University Research Fund 2018

Conference Papers

  • “Dominant narratives and silent actors: Māori service in World War Two”. Marginalised Histories of the Second World War, University of Exeter, Kings College London, 11 April 2018.
  • “Outlaw Bikers, methamphetamine and cultural change”.ICISSS 2017 Oxford, 13-15 November 2017.
  • “From the 19th Century to now (and beyond): Toa and the face of battle”. ‘Tangata Whenua, Tangata Ᾱkau, Tangata Moana’: Making Māori History Whole. He Rau Tumu Kōrero IX, Bluff, 27-29 June 2017.
  • ‘The Eastern Gallic Revolt of 54 and 53: Caesar and Gallic Leadership’, ASCS 35, Australasian Society for Classical Studies, Palmerston North, January 2014
  • ‘The War Priest Titokowaru’,Tutu TePuehu: New Zealand’s Wars of the Nineteenth Century, Wellington, February 2011.
  • ‘Caesar and the Aedui Civil War’, ASCS 31, Australasian Society for Classical Studies, Perth, Australia, February 2010.
  • ‘Caesar’s Germans and Britons: An Analysis of Attitudes towards the ‘Other’ living along a Convenient Periphery’, Centre and Periphery, New Zealand Historical Association Conference, Palmerston North, November 2009.
  • ‘Ancient Britons and New Zealand Māori: A Comparison of responses to Organised Military Imperialism’, Future of the Past: Sovereignty and Dominion, People and Places, New Zealand Historical Association Conference, Wellington November 2007.